In 1808, during the Second Seven Years War, the Republic of Chihuahua had annexed or occupied large areas of the Confederate States of Mexico. King Andrew I saw it in the best interests of the URAS to create another pro-American monarchist state. Thus, Mexico City was rechristened the Free City of Tenochtitlan. Desmond Cardiff, a wealthy Catholic Baltimore merchant, politician, and former American general, was made Grand Duke Desmond I of the House of Cardiff. Desmond immediately put his family members in high positions of power, earning Tenochtitlan the nickname of "Cardiff Castle." With no reigns on the monarch, Desmond was able to rule absolutely, although he was known as a more liberal monarch than some would expect. Under this liberal reign, Tenochtitlan became a center of education and learning on the continent. The Free City of Tenochtitlan has always been an American ally, although they stay neutral in military conflicts.